What Is The Valency Of Barium? How Many Valence Electrons Does Barium Have ?

Barium

Element 56 of Periodic table is Barium with atomic number 56, atomic weight 137.327. Barium, symbol Ba, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Barium is a alkaline earth metal element. Trivial name of Barium is alkaline earth metals*. Know everything about Barium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element.

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Barium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Barium

Name Barium
Atomic Number 56
Atomic Symbol Ba
Atomic Weight 137.327
Phase Solid
Color Silver
Classification alkaline earth metal
Group in Periodic Table 2
Group Name beryllium family
Period in Periodic Table 6
Block in Periodic Table s-block
Electronic Configuration 6s2
Melting Point 727 °C
Boiling Point 1870 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2>
CAS Number CAS7440-39-3

Neighborhood
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
55
Cs
56
Ba
87
Fr
88
Ra

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 1
H
2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

Explore our interactive periodic table

How to Locate Barium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 56 to find Barium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Barium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trends

Table of Contents

History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Barium with other elements

Barium History

The element Barium was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in year 1808 in United Kingdom . Barium derived its name from the Greek barys, meaning “heavy”

Barium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Barium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth”s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 2.7e-06
Abundance in Earth”s Crust 0.00034
Abundance in Oceans 3×10-6%
Abundance in Humans 3e-07

Crystal Structure of Barium

The solid state structure of Barium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
502.8 502.8 502.8 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

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alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Im_ 3m
*
Space Group Number 229
Crystal Structure Body Centered Cubic

Barium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Barium atoms have 56 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 56
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 56
Number of Protons 56
Mass Number 137
Number of Neutrons 81
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2>
Electron Configuration 6s2
Valence Electrons 6s2
Oxidation State 1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Barium – Electrons per energy level

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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Barium – neutral Barium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Barium atom is 6s2. The portion of Barium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Barium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Barium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 6s2

Atomic Structure of Barium

Barium atomic radius is 253 pm, while it”s covalent radius is 198 pm.

Atomic Radius

253 pm (2.53 Å)

Atomic Volume 39.1245014245 cm3
Covalent Radius 198 pm (1.98 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 1.3 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Barium

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Barium Chemical Properties: Barium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Barium is 13.95 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 0.89
ElectronAffinity 13.95 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Barium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Barium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy – kJ/mol
1 502.9
2 965.2
3 3.6×103

Barium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Barium Physical Properties

Density 3.51 g/cm3
Molar Volume 39.1245014245 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 13 GPa
Shear Modulus 4.9 GPa
Bulk Modulus 9.6 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Barium – Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 1.25 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Barium Electrical Properties

Barium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Barium

Electrical Conductivity 2.9×106 S/m
Resistivity 3.5×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Barium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 18 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000206 K-1

Barium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.13×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.552×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 3.966e-05

Optical Properties of Barium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Barium

Speed of Sound 1620 m/s

Barium Thermal Properties – Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Barium

Melting Point 1×103 K (727 °C)
Boiling Point 2143 K (1870 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Barium

Heat of Fusion 8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 140 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Barium Isotopes – Nuclear Properties of Barium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Barium has 7 stable isotope – 130Ba, 132Ba, 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, 137Ba, 138Ba.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
114Ba
115Ba
116Ba
117Ba
118Ba
119Ba
120Ba
121Ba
122Ba
123Ba
124Ba
125Ba
126Ba
127Ba
128Ba
129Ba
130Ba 0.106% Stable N/A
131Ba
132Ba 0.101% Stable N/A
133Ba
134Ba 2.417% Stable N/A
135Ba 6.592% Stable N/A
136Ba 7.854% Stable N/A
137Ba 11.232% Stable N/A
138Ba 71.698% Stable N/A
139Ba
140Ba
141Ba
142Ba
143Ba
144Ba
145Ba
146Ba
147Ba
148Ba
149Ba
150Ba
151Ba
152Ba
153Ba

Regulatory and Health – Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-39-3
RTECS Number RTECSCQ8370000
DOT Hazard Class 4.3
DOT Numbers 1400
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards Water Reactive
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 2
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number – Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-39-3
CID Number CID5355457
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSCQ8370000

Compare Barium with all Group 2 elements

Barium vs Beryllium Barium vs Magnesium Barium vs Calcium Barium vs Strontium Barium vs Radium

Compare Barium with all alkaline earth metal elements

Barium vs Beryllium Barium vs Magnesium Barium vs Calcium Barium vs Strontium Barium vs Radium

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