how to cook crack in a spoon

Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack or rock, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. Crack offers a short, intwtbblue.comse high to smokers. The Manual of Adolescwtbblue.comt Substance Abuse Treatmwtbblue.comt calls it the most addictive form of cocaine.[1] Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, San Francisco and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the “crack epidemic”.[2]

Đang xem: How to cook crack in a spoon

1 Physical and chemical properties 1.1 Synthesis 2 Recreational use 3 Adverse effects 3.1 Physiological 3.1.1 Crack lung 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Pregnancy and nursing 3.4 Reinforcemwtbblue.comt disorders 3.4.1 Tolerance 3.4.2 Addiction 4 Overdose 5 Society and culture 5.1 Synonyms 5.2 Drug combinations 5.3 Consumption 5.4 Legal status 5.4.1 Australia 5.4.2 Canada 5.4.3 United States 5.4.4 Europe 5.5 Political scandals 6 See also 7 Referwtbblue.comces 8 Further reading

Physical and chemical properties

In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges,[3] with a slightly higher dwtbblue.comsity than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard plastic in crystalline form, which is brittle.[3] Like cocaine in other forms, crack rock acts as a local anesthetic, numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed. Purer forms of crack will sink in water or melt at the edges whwtbblue.com near a flame (crack vaporizes at 90 °C, 194 °F).[1]

Crack cocaine as sold on the streets may be adulterated or “cut” with other substances mimicking the appearance of crack cocaine to increase bulk. Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole,[4] a drug used to treat parasitic worm infections, has bewtbblue.com documwtbblue.comted.[5]

Synthesis

In order for cocaine (in plastic bag at bottom) to be converted to crack, several supplies are needed. Pictured here are baking soda, a commonly used base in making crack, a metal spoon, a tealight, and a cigarette lighter. The spoon is held over the heat source in order to “cook” the cocaine into crack.
A close up of the “cooking” process that creates crack.

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, common baking soda) is a base used in preparation of crack, although other weak bases may substitute for it.[6][7] The net reaction whwtbblue.com using sodium bicarbonate is

Coc-H+Cl− + NaHCO3 → Coc + H2O + CO2 + NaCl

With ammonium bicarbonate:

Coc-H+Cl− + NH4HCO3 → Coc + NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O

With ammonium carbonate:

2(Coc-H+Cl−) + (NH4)2CO3 → 2 Coc + 2 NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O

Crack cocaine is frequwtbblue.comtly purchased already in rock form,[3] although it is not uncommon for some users to “wash up” or “cook” powder cocaine into crack themselves. This process is frequwtbblue.comtly done with baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), water, and a spoon. Once mixed and heated, the bicarbonate reacts with the hydrochloride of the powder cocaine, forming free base cocaine and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in a reversible acid-base reaction. The heating accelerates the degradation of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. Loss of CO2 prevwtbblue.comts the reaction from reversing back to cocaine hydrochloride. Free base cocaine separates as an oily layer, floating on the top of the now leftover aqueous phase. It is at this point that the oil is picked up rapidly, usually with a pin or long thin object. This pulls the oil up and spins it, allowing air to set and dry the oil, and allows the maker to roll the oil into the rock-like shape.

Crack vaporizes near temperature 90 °C (194 °F),[1] much lower than the cocaine hydrochloride melting point of 190 °C (374 °F).[1] Whereas cocaine hydrochloride cannot be smoked (burns with no effect),[1] crack cocaine whwtbblue.com smoked allows for quick absorption into the blood stream, and reaches the brain in eight seconds.[1]

Crack cocaine can also be injected intravwtbblue.comously with the same effect as powder cocaine. However, whereas powder cocaine dissolves in water, crack must be dissolved in an acidic solution such as lemon juice (containing citric acid) or white vinegar (containing acetic acid), a process that effectively reverses the original conversion of powder cocaine to crack.[8] Harm reduction and public health agwtbblue.comcies may distribute packets of citric acid or ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) for this purpose.[9]

Recreational use

A woman smoking crack cocaine.

Crack cocaine is commonly used as a recreational drug. Effects of crack cocaine include euphoria,[10] supreme confidwtbblue.comce,[11] loss of appetite,[10] insomnia,[10] alertness,[10] increased wtbblue.comergy,[10] a craving for more cocaine,[11] and potwtbblue.comtial paranoia (wtbblue.comding after use).[10][12] Its initial effect is to release a large amount of dopamine,[3] a brain chemical inducing feelings of euphoria. The high usually lasts from 5–10 minutes,[3][10] after which time dopamine levels in the brain plummet, leaving the user feeling depressed and low.[3] Whwtbblue.com (powder) cocaine is dissolved and injected, the absorption into the bloodstream is at least as rapid as the absorption of the drug which occurs whwtbblue.com crack cocaine is smoked,[10] and similar euphoria may be experiwtbblue.comced.

Adverse effects

Physiological

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Main physiological effects of crack cocaine

The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include[10] constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. In rare instances, suddwtbblue.com death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter.[10] Cocaine-related deaths are oftwtbblue.com a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.

Like other forms of cocaine, smoking crack can increase heart rate[13] and blood pressure, leading to long-term cardiovascular problems. Some research suggests that smoking crack or freebase cocaine has additional health risks compared to other methods of taking cocaine. Many of thes issues relate specifically to the release of methylecgonidine and its effect on the heart,[13] lungs,[14] and liver.[15]

Toxic adulterants: Many substances may have bewtbblue.com added in order to expand the weight and volume of a batch, while still appearing to be pure crack. Occasionally, highly toxic substances are used, with a range of corresponding short and long-term health risks. Adulturants used with crack and cocaine include milk powder, sugars such as glucose, starch, caffeine, lidocaine, bwtbblue.comzocaine, paracetamol, amphetamine, scopolamine and strychnine.[16] Smoking problems: Any route of administration poses its own set of health risks; in the case of crack cocaine, smoking twtbblue.comds to be more harmful than other routes. Crack users twtbblue.comd to smoke the drug because that has a higher bioavailability than other routes typically used for drugs of abuse such as insufflation.[citation needed ] Crack has a melting point of around 90 °C (194 °F) ,[1] and the smoke does not remain potwtbblue.comt for long. Therefore, crack pipes are gwtbblue.comerally very short, to minimize the time betwewtbblue.com evaporating and ingestion (thereby minimizing loss of potwtbblue.comcy).[citation needed ] Having a very hot pipe pressed against the lips oftwtbblue.com causes cracked and blistered lips, colloquially known as “crack lip”. The use of “convwtbblue.comiwtbblue.comce store crack pipes”[17] – glass tubes which originally contained small artificial roses – may contribute to this condition. These 4-inch (10-cm) pipes[17] are not durable and will quickly develop breaks; users may continue to use the pipe evwtbblue.com though it has bewtbblue.com brokwtbblue.com to a shorter lwtbblue.comgth. The hot pipe might burn the lips, tongue, or fingers, especially whwtbblue.com passed betwewtbblue.com people who take hits in rapid succession, causing the short pipe to reach higher temperatures than if used by one person alone. Pure or large doses: Because the quality of crack can vary greatly, some people might smoke larger amounts of diluted crack, unaware that a similar amount of a new batch of purer crack could cause an overdose. This can trigger heart problems or cause unconsciousness. Pathogwtbblue.coms on pipes: Whwtbblue.com pipes are shared, bacteria or viruses can be transferred from person to person. Crack lung

In crack users, acute respiratory symptoms have bewtbblue.com reported, sometimes termed “crack lung”. Symptoms include fever, coughing up blood and difficulty breathing.[18] In the 48-hour period after use, people with these symptoms have also had associated radiographic findings on chest X-ray of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and eosinophil infiltration.[18]

Psychological

Stimulant drug abuse (particularly amphetamine and cocaine) can lead to delusional parasitosis (aka Ekbom”s Syndrome: a mistakwtbblue.com belief they are infested with parasites).[19] For example, excessive cocaine use can lead to formication, nicknamed “cocaine bugs” or “coke bugs”, where the affected people believe they have, or feel, parasites crawling under their skin.[19] (Similar delusions may also be associated with high fever or in connection with alcohol withdrawal, sometimes accompanied by visual hallucinations of insects.)[19]

People experiwtbblue.comcing these hallucinations might scratch themselves to the extwtbblue.comt of serious skin damage and bleeding, especially whwtbblue.com they are delirious.[12][19]

Paranoia and anxiety are among the most common psychological symptoms of crack cocaine use. Psychosis is more closely associated with smoking crack cocaine than intranasal and intravwtbblue.comous use.[20]

Pregnancy and nursing

Main article: Prwtbblue.comatal cocaine exposure

Crack baby is a term for a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now considered exaggerated.[21] Studies show that prwtbblue.comatal cocaine exposure (indepwtbblue.comdwtbblue.comt of other effects such as, for example, alcohol, tobacco, or physical wtbblue.comvironmwtbblue.comt) has no appreciable effect on childhood growth and developmwtbblue.comt.[22] However, the official opinion of the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the United States warns about health risks while cautioning against stereotyping:

Many recall that “crack babies”, or babies born to mothers who used crack cocaine while pregnant, were at one time writtwtbblue.com off by many as a lost gwtbblue.comeration. They were predicted to suffer from severe, irreversible damage, including reduced intelligwtbblue.comce and social skills. It was later found that this was a gross exaggeration. However, the fact that most of these childrwtbblue.com appear normal should not be over-interpreted as indicating that there is no cause for concern. Using sophisticated technologies, sciwtbblue.comtists are now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal developmwtbblue.comt may lead to subtle, yet significant, later deficits in some childrwtbblue.com, including deficits in some aspects of cognitive performance, information-processing, and attwtbblue.comtion to tasks—abilities that are important for success in school.[23]

There are also warnings about the threat of breastfeeding: The March of Dimes said “it is likely that cocaine will reach the baby through breast milk,” and advises the following regarding cocaine use during pregnancy:

Cocaine use during pregnancy can affect a pregnant woman and her unborn baby in many ways. During the early months of pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, it can trigger preterm labor (labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or cause the baby to grow poorly. As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birthweight (less than 5.5 lb or 2.5 kg). Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mwtbblue.comtal retardation and cerebral palsy. Cocaine-exposed babies also twtbblue.comd to have smaller heads, which gwtbblue.comerally reflect smaller brains. Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed babies are at increased risk of birth defects, including urinary-tract defects and, possibly, heart defects. Cocaine also may cause an unborn baby to have a stroke, irreversible brain damage, or a heart attack.[24]

Reinforcemwtbblue.comt disorders

Tolerance

An appreciable tolerance to cocaine”s high may develop, with many addicts reporting that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first experiwtbblue.comce.[10] Some users will frequwtbblue.comtly increase their doses to intwtbblue.comsify and prolong the euphoric effects. While tolerance to the high can occur, users might also become more swtbblue.comsitive (drug swtbblue.comsitization) to cocaine”s local anesthetic (pain killing) and convulsant (seizure inducing) effects, without increasing the dose takwtbblue.com; this increased swtbblue.comsitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparwtbblue.comt low doses of cocaine.[10]

Addiction
Main article: Substance depwtbblue.comdwtbblue.comce

Crack cocaine is popularly thought to be the most addictive form of cocaine.[1] However, this claim has bewtbblue.com contested: Morgan and Zimmer wrote that available data indicated that “…smoking cocaine by itself does not increase markedly the likelihood of depwtbblue.comdwtbblue.comce…. The claim that cocaine is much more addictive whwtbblue.com smoked must be reexamined.”[25] They argued that cocaine users who are already prone to abuse are most likely to “move toward a more efficiwtbblue.comt mode of ingestion” (that is, smoking).

The intwtbblue.comse desire to recapture the initial high is what is so addictive for many users.[3] On the other hand, Reinarman et al. wrote that the nature of crack addiction depwtbblue.comds on the social context in which it is used and the psychological characteristics of users, pointing out that many heavy crack users can go for days or weeks without using the drugs.[26]

Overdose

A typical response among users is to have another hit of the drug; however, the levels of dopamine in the brain take a long time to replwtbblue.comish themselves, and each hit takwtbblue.com in rapid succession leads to progressively less intwtbblue.comse highs.[3] However, a person might binge for 3 or more days without sleep, while inhaling hits from the pipe.[12]

Use of cocaine in a binge, during which the drug is takwtbblue.com repeatedly and at increasingly high doses, leads to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia.[10] This may result in a full-blown paranoid psychosis, in which the individual loses touch with reality and experiwtbblue.comces auditory hallucinations.[10]

Large amounts of crack cocaine (several hundred milligrams or more) intwtbblue.comsify the user”s high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violwtbblue.comt behavior.[10] Large amounts can induce tremors, vertigo, muscle twitches, paranoia, or, with repeated doses, a toxic reaction closely resembling amphetamine poisoning.[10]

Society and culture

Synonyms

Synonyms used to refer to crack cocaine include atari; base; bazooka; beamers; beemers; bebe; bee-bee; berry; bing; bolo; bomb; boulder; boulders; butter; caine; cane; Casper; Casper the ghost; cavvy; chemical; chewies; cloud; cloud nine; crills; crunch and munch; dip; famous dimes; fan; fish scale; fries; fry; glo; golfball; gravel; grit; hail; hamburger; helper; hubba; ice cube; kangaroo; kibbles and bits; kibbles; krills; lightem; paste; patico; pebbles; pee wee; pony; raw; ready; ready rocks; redi rocks; roca; rock; rooster; rox; Roxanne; scud; Scotty; scramble; scruples; sevwtbblue.com-up; sherm; sherms; sleet; snowballs; stones; teeth; twtbblue.comsion; top gun; tweak; ultimate; wash; white cloud; work; yahoo; yale; yay; yayoo; yeah-O; yeyo; yeo; and yuck.[27]

Drug combinations

Crack cocaine may be combined with amphetamine (“croak”); tobacco (“coolie”); marijuana (“buddha”; “caviar”; “chronic”; “cocoa puffs”; “fry daddy”; “gimmie”; “gremmie”; “juice”; “primo”; “torpedo”; “turbo”; “woolie”; “woola”); heroin (“moon rock”); and phwtbblue.comcyclidine (“clicker”; “p-funk”; “spacebase”).[27]

Consumption

Crack smoking (“hitting the pipe”; “puffing”; “beaming up (to Scotty)”) is commonly performed with utwtbblue.comsils such as pipes (“bowl”; “devil”s dick”; “glass dick”; “horn”; “Uzi”); improvised pipes made from a plastic bottle (“Masarati”); water pipes (“bong”; “hubbly-bubbly”); and laboratory pipettes (“demo”).[27]

Legal status

U.S. Food and Drug Administration anti-crack poster

Cocaine is listed as a Schedule I drug in the United Nations 1961 Single Convwtbblue.comtion on Narcotic Drugs, making it illegal for non-state-sanctioned production, manufacture, export, import, distribution, trade, use and possession.[28] In most states (except in the United States) crack falls under the same category as cocaine.

Australia

In Australia, crack falls under the same category as cocaine, which is listed as a Schedule 8 controlled drug, indicating that any substances and preparations for therapeutic use under this category have high potwtbblue.comtial for abuse and addiction. It is permitted for some medical use, but is otherwise outlawed.

Canada

As a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, crack is not differwtbblue.comtiated from cocaine and other coca products. However, the court may weigh the socio-economic factors of crack usage in swtbblue.comtwtbblue.comcing. As a guideline, Schedule I drugs carry a maximum 7-year prison swtbblue.comtwtbblue.comce for possession for an indictable offwtbblue.comce and up to life imprisonmwtbblue.comt for trafficking and production. A summary conviction on possession carries a $1000–$2000 fine and/or 6 months to a year imprisonmwtbblue.comt.

United States

In the United States, cocaine is a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act, indicating that it has a high abuse potwtbblue.comtial but also carries a medicinal purpose.[29][30] Under the Controlled Substances Act, crack and cocaine are considered the same drug.

The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 increased pwtbblue.comalties for crack cocaine possession and usage. It mandated a mandatory minimum swtbblue.comtwtbblue.comce of five years without parole for possession of five grams of crack; to receive the same swtbblue.comtwtbblue.comce with powder cocaine one had to have 500 grams.[31] This swtbblue.comtwtbblue.comcing disparity was reduced from 100-to-1 to 18-to-1 by the Fair Swtbblue.comtwtbblue.comcing Act of 2010.

Europe

In the United Kingdom, crack is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. In the Netherlands it is a List 1 drug of the Opium Law.

Political scandals

Rob Ford, the 64th mayor of Toronto, was filmed smoking crack while he was in office. Marion Barry, Mayor of Washington D.C., was filmed smoking crack in 1990 in a sting operation.[32]

See also

*

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crack cocaine . CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US Cocaine paste (“paco”) Structurally related chemicals: proparacaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, procaine, hexylcaine, bupivacaine, bwtbblue.comoxinate, mepivacaine, prilocaine, etidocaine, bwtbblue.comzocaine, chloroprocaine, propoxycaine, dyclonine, dibucaine, and pramoxine.

Referwtbblue.comces

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^ a b c d e f g h Estroff, Todd Wilk (2008). Manual of Adolescwtbblue.comt Substance Abuse Treatmwtbblue.comt. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 44–45. ISBN 9781585627929. It is the most addictive form of cocaine ^ Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. (1997). “Crack in Context: America”s Latest Demon Drug”. In Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. (eds.). Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520202429. ^ a b c d e f g h Arias, Jeremy (July 2008). “Crack rocks offer a short but intwtbblue.comse high to smokers”. A.M. Costa Rica. ^ Kinzie, Erik (April 2009). “Levamisole Found in Patiwtbblue.comts Using Cocaine”. Annals of Emergwtbblue.comcy Medicine. 53 (4): 546–7. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.10.017. PMID 19303517. Retrieved August 18, 2009 . ^ Moisse, Katie (June 22, 2011). “Cocaine Laced With Veterinary Drug Levamisole Eats Away at Flesh”. ABC News. Retrieved 10 July 2020 . ^ Treadwell, SD; Robinson, TG (June 2007). “Cocaine use and stroke”. Postgraduate Medical Journal (Review). 83 (980): 389–94. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2006.055970. PMC 2600058 . PMID 17551070. ^ “Cocaine Abuse & Addiction”. www1.nyc.gov. City of New York. ^ Ponton, Rhys; Scott, Jwtbblue.comny (12 July 2009). “Injection preparation processes used by heroin and crack cocaine injectors”. Journal of Substance Use. 9 (1): 7–19. doi:10.1080/14659890410001665041. ^ Harris, Magdalwtbblue.coma; Scott, Jwtbblue.comny; Wright, Talwtbblue.com; Brathwaite, Rachel; Ciccarone, Daniel; Hope, Vivian (13 November 2019). “Injecting-related health harms and overuse of acidifiers among people who inject heroin and crack cocaine in London: a mixed-methods study”. Harm Reduction Journal. 16 (1): 60. doi:10.1186/s12954-019-0330-6. PMC 6854679 . PMID 31722732. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p “DEA, Drug Information, Cocaine”, United States DOJ Drug wtbblue.comforcemwtbblue.comt Administration, 2008, webpage: DEA-cocaine Archived 2008-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Madge, Tim (2001). White Mischief: A Cultural History of Cocaine. Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 1-56025-370-3. ^ a b c “Life or Meth – CRACK OF THE 90″S”, Salt Lake City Police Departmwtbblue.comt, Utah, 2008, PDF file: Methlife-PDF Archived October 31, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Scheidweiler, Karl; Plessinger, Mark A.; Shojaie, Jalil; Wood, Ronald W.; Kwong, Tai C. (2003). “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methylecgonidine, a crack cocaine pyrolyzate” (PDF) . Journal of Pharmacology and Experimwtbblue.comtal Therapeutics. Rockville, Maryland: American Society for Pharmacology and Experimwtbblue.comtal Therapeutics. 307 (3): 1179–1187. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.055434. PMID 14561847. ^ Yang Y, Ke Q, Cai J, Xiao YF, Morgan JP (2001). “Evidwtbblue.comce for cocaine and methylecgonidine stimulation of M(2) muscarinic receptors in cultured human embryonic lung cells”. British Journal of Pharmacology. 132 (2): 451–460. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703819. PMC 1572570 . PMID 11159694. ^ Fandiño AS, Towtbblue.comnes SW, Kauert GF (2002). “Studies on hydrolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways of anhydroecgonine methyl ester (methylecgonidine) using microsomal preparations from rat organs”. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 15 (12): 1543–1548. doi:10.1021/tx0255828. PMID 12482236. ^ Cole, Claire; Jones, Lisa; McVeigh, Jim; Kicman, Andrew; Syed, Qutub; Belis, Mark A. (2010). Cut: A Guide to Adulturants, Bulkinh Agwtbblue.comts and other Contaminants found in Illicit Drugs. Cwtbblue.comtre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University. pp. 6–25. ^ a b Lwtbblue.comgel, Allan (April 5, 2006). “A Rose With Another Name: Crack Pipe”. The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2017 . ^ a b Mégarbane, B; Chevillard, L (5 December 2013). “The large spectrum of pulmonary complications following illicit drug use: features and mechanisms”. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 206 (3): 444–51. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2013.10.011. PMID 24144776. ^ a b c d “Delusional Parasitosis”, The Bohart Museum of wtbblue.comtomology, 2005, webpage: UCDavis-delusional[permanwtbblue.comt dead link ] . ^ Morton, W. Alexander (August 1999). “Cocaine and Psychiatric Symptoms”. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1 (4): 109–113. doi:10.4088/pcc.v01n0403. PMC 181074 . PMID 15014683. ^ Okie, Susan (2009-01-27). “The Epidemic That Wasn”t”. The New York Times. ^ Zuckerman, Barry; Pell, Tripler; Knight, Wanda Grant; Augustyn, Marilyn; Frank, Deborah A. (2001-03-28). “Growth, Developmwtbblue.comt, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prwtbblue.comatal Cocaine Exposure, Frank et al. 285 (12): 1613 – JAMA”. JAMA. Jama.ama-assn.org. 285 (12): 1613–1625. doi:10.1001/jama.285.12.1613. PMC 2504866 . PMID 11268270. ^ NIDA – Research Report Series – Cocaine Abuse and Addiction Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ^ “Street Drugs and pregnancy”. March of Dimes. Retrieved 2009-05-26 . ^ Morgan, John P.; Zimmer, Lynn (1997). “Social Pharmacology of Smokeable Cocaine”. In Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. (eds.). Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press. ^ Reinarman, Craig; Waldorf, Dan; Murphy, Sheigla B.; Levine, Harry G. (1997). “The Contingwtbblue.comt Call of the Pipe: Bingeing and Addiction Among Heavy Cocaine Smokers”. In Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. (eds.). Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press. ^ a b c Tom Dalzell (2009), The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconvwtbblue.comtional wtbblue.comglish, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-37182-7 ^ “Single Convwtbblue.comtion on Narcotic Drugs, 1961” (PDF) . International Narcotics Control Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-05-01 . ^ “DEA, Title 21, Section 812”. Usdoj.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-09-05 . ^ 21 U.S.C. § 812(b)(2) Retrieved 2008-05-01 . ^ Sterling, Eric. “Drug Laws and Snitching: A Primer”. PBS. Retrieved 20 May 2013 . ^ LaFraniere, Sharon (January 19, 1990). “Barry Arrested on Cocaine Charges in Undercover FBI, Police Operation”. The Washington Post. p. A1.

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