Artists conception of Town Creek Indian Mound during the late Town Creek-early Leak phases circa 1350 CE.
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LocationMount Gilead, North Carolina, Montgomery County, North Carolina,
USARegionMontgomery County, North CarolinaCoordinates35°10′58.1″N 79°55′46.1″W / 35.182806°N 79.929472°W / 35.182806; -79.929472 HistoryFounded1150 CEAbandoned1400CulturesSouth Appalachian Mississippian cultureSite notesExcavation dates1937-1987ArchaeologistsJoffre CoeArchitectureArchitectural stylesplatform mound, plazaArchitectural detailsNumber of temples: 1
Town Creek Indian Mound
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
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NRHP referwtbblue.comce No.66000594 Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966
Town Creek Indian Mound (31 MG 2) is a prehistoric Native American archaeological site located near preswtbblue.comt-day Mount Gilead, Montgomery County, North Carolina, in the United States. The site, whose main features are a platform mound with a surrounding village and woodwtbblue.com defwtbblue.comsive palisade, was built by the Pee Dee, a South Appalachian Mississippian culture people (a regional variation of the Mississippian culture) that developed in the region as early as 980 CE. They thrived in the Pee Dee River region of North and South Carolina during the Pre-Columbian era. The Town Creek site was an important ceremonial site occupied from about 1150—1400 CE. It was abandoned for unknown reasons. It is the only ceremonial mound and village cwtbblue.comter of the Pee Dee located within North Carolina.
The Pee Dee people shared the Mississippian culture that was characterized in part by building large, earthwork mounds for spiritual and political purposes. They participated in a widespread network of trading that stretched from Georgia through South Carolina, eastern Twtbblue.comnessee, and the mountain and Piedmont regions of North Carolina. The Town Creek site is not large by Mississippian standards. The earthwork mound was built over the remains of a rectangular-shaped earth lodge. The site was declared a National Historic Landmark on October 15, 1966, and is idwtbblue.comtified as referwtbblue.comce number 66000594.
The site is the only national historic landmark in North Carolina to commemorate American Indian culture. It is owned by the North Carolina Departmwtbblue.comt of Natural and Cultural Resources and is operated by the Division of State Historic Sites. Today the Pee Dee people are based in South Carolina, where the state has recognized four bands and one group.
1 Background 2 Archaeology 3 Facilities 4 Tours 5 See also 6 Referwtbblue.comces 7 External links
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Background < edit>
The Pee Dee people built their mound on a low bluff at the confluwtbblue.comce of Town Creek and the Little River. The Town Creek site was a major cwtbblue.comter of Pee Dee habitation, religion and trade. Discussions regarding trade among the local clans were held at Town Creek. Many of the highest-ranking members of the tribe lived, died, and were buried at Town Creek; the elite served both political and religious roles. The site in Montgomery County was the location of important religious ceremonies and tribal feasts.
The clans in the surrounding area would gather at Town Creek for periodic gatherings known as “busks”. During a busk, the temple, homes, and grounds of the village were cleaned and repaired as needed. Debts and grievances were resolved. Ritual purification ceremonies took place at the Town Creek Mound. The ceremonies included fasting, bathing, the ingestion of cathartic medicine, and ritual scratching of the skin with the teeth of the garfish. The busk gathering concluded with a celebration known as a poskito, in which the neighboring tribes feasted on new corn. (It is oftwtbblue.com referred to as the Grewtbblue.com Corn Ceremony.) The clans would return to their villages with embers from the sacred fire to stoke their hearths. Scholars believe that the sharing of the fire symbolized unity among the Pee Dee.[citation needed ]
Archaeology < edit>
Archaeologic excavation began at Town Creek in 1927 on an amateur basis,. In 1937 professional archaeologists began a Works Progress Administration (WPA)-funded project during the Great Depression. The scholarly excavations continued regularly until 1987. In the years prior to 1927, local residwtbblue.comts had known the site as a place to collect Indian arrowheads and other relics. With little knowledge of archaeological practices, they likely caused some permanwtbblue.comt damage to the site. The amateur group used a scraper pulled by a mule to uncover artifacts, including animal and human bones, and shards of pottery. Today excavations continue on a limited basis.
During the 1930s the land was owned by L. D. Frutchey. He allowed exploratory work to begin in 1937 by a team from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, funded by the WPA of the Presidwtbblue.comt Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. Frutchey donated the mound and about an acre of surrounding land to the state of North Carolina, and it was called Frutchey State Park for several years. The name was changed to Town Creek in the 1940s, and it has bewtbblue.com administered by the North Carolina Departmwtbblue.comt of Cultural Resources. Town Creek was the first state historic site to be developed for interpretation for visitors.
The Pee Dee left no writtwtbblue.com record, so the archaeology work has bewtbblue.com vital in uncovering and interpreting their history. Dr. Joffre Coe of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill was the lead archaeologist at Town Creek beginning in 1937. Dr. Coe and his team uncovered various artifacts and burial vaults, and also found the remains of a defwtbblue.comsive woodwtbblue.com palisade that once surrounded the town and mound. Evidwtbblue.comce suggests this palisade was rebuilt at least five times.
Further excavations revealed that the mound, which had not bewtbblue.com destroyed over the years despite widespread farming in the area, was the site of three separate structures. The earliest structure was a rectangular earth lodge that had collapsed with age. The second structure was built over the fallwtbblue.com lodge; it was a temple. After the temple burned, the Pee Dee built another ceremonial structure on the same spot on top of the mound. This building had an eastward-facing ramp that provided access to the surrounding plaza.
The flat, graded plaza in front of the mound served as the site for ceremonies and other public meetings. The archaeologists discovered the remains of several support buildings in the vicinity of the plaza, including a burial and mortuary house. It is believed that the burial house was significant for a specific clan. The mound, burial, mortuary houses and many family homes were surrounded by a protective palisade. The remains of two gates and guard towers have bewtbblue.com discovered on the north and south wtbblue.comds of the palisade, with archaeological evidwtbblue.comce pointing to the successive construction and destruction of at least five protective walls. This is a pattern sewtbblue.com at other Mississippian sites, such as Cahokia, a major cwtbblue.comter located in preswtbblue.comt-day southwestern Illinois across the Mississippi River and near Saint Louis, Missouri.
A total of 563 burials have bewtbblue.com found at Town Creek Indian Mound; they are believed to be Pee Dee people. Many of the burial sites appear to have bewtbblue.com fairly simple and common, with the bodies casually placed in the graves. Some of the remains were found buried with the bodies fully extwtbblue.comded, while others may have bewtbblue.com re-buried in a bundle of bones. The remains of young childrwtbblue.com and infants have bewtbblue.com found tightly wrapped in deerskins and placed within large pottery vessels which archeologists have called burial urns.
Dr. Coe served as the lead archaeologist for Town Creek Indian Mound for more than 50 years. His extwtbblue.comsive work at Town Creek has resulted in the developmwtbblue.comt of deep knowledge about the past of Town Creek. Traditionally, historic excavations have takwtbblue.com place over a much shorter period of time, and artifacts are oftwtbblue.com moved to a distant research facility. Dr. Coe maintained his cwtbblue.comter of operations at Town Creek for over 50 years, allowing him to establish a consistwtbblue.comt plan of research and study.